Friday, November 8, 2013

The romantic story of the Mongolian Independence

The romantic story of the Mongolian Independence


The romantic story of the Mongols and their achievements has been written so completely that it is unnecessary to repeat it here even though it is as fascinating as a tale from the Arabian Nights. The present status of the country, however, is but little known to the western world. In a few words I will endeavor to sketch the recent political developments, some of which occurred while we were in Mongolia.

In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the great Genghiz Khan and his illustrious successor Kublai Khan "almost in a night" erected the greatest empire the world has ever seen. Not only did they conquer all of Asia, but they advanced in Europe as far as the Dnieper leaving behind a trail of blood and slaughter.

All Europe rose against them, but what could not be accomplished by force of arms was wrought in the Mongols themselves by an excess of luxury. In their victorious advance great stores of treasure fell into their hands and they gave themselves to a life of ease and indulgence.
By nature the Mongols were hard riding, hard living warriors, accustomed to privation and fatigue. The poison of luxury ate into the very fibers of their being and gradually they lost the characteristics which had made them great. The ruin of the race was completed by the introduction of Lamaism, a religion which carries only moral destruction where it enters, and eventually the Mongols passed under the rule of the once conquered Chinese and then under the Manchus.

Comm. par M. de l'Écluse.M. J. Korostovetz, Prince Saïne Noïne,  Plénipotentiaire Russe, Premier Ministre Mongol.        Les ministres mongols et le plénipotentiaire russe qui ont signé le récent traité russo-mongol à Ourga.

Until the overthrow of the Manchu regime in China in 1911, and the establishment of the present republic, there were no particularly significant events in Mongolian history.

 But at that time the Russians, wishing to create a buffer state between themselves and China as well as to obtain special commercial privileges in Mongolia, aided the Mongols in rebellion, furnished them with arms and ammunition and with officers to train their men.

A somewhat tentative proclamation of independence for Outer Mongolia was issued in December, 1911, by the Hutukhtu and nobles of Urga, and the Chinese were driven out of the country with little difficulty. Beset with internal troubles, the Chinese paid but scant attention to Mongolian affairs until news was received in Peking in October, 1912, that M. Korostovetz, formerly Russian Minister to China, had arrived secretly in Urga and on November 3, 1912, had recognized the independence of Outer Mongolia on behalf of his Government.

Treaty of friendship and alliance between the Government of Mongolia and Tibet was signed on February 2, 1913, at Urga (now Ulaanbaatar). However, there have been doubts about the authority of the Tibetan signatories to conclude such a treaty, and therefore about whether it constitutes a valid contract.
Occasionally, the mere existence of the treaty has been put into doubt, but its text in Mongolian language has been published by the Mongolian Academy of Sciences in 1982, and in 2007 an original copy in Tibetan language and script surfaced from Mongolian archives.
File:Tibet Mongolia Treaty.jpg
After the collapse of the Qing Empire in 1911, both Tibet and Mongolia declared their formal independence under theocratic heads of states, and both had had no success in gaining official recognition from the Republic of China. In the treaty signed on January 11, 1913, Mongolia and Tibet declared mutual recognition and allegiance. Both sides declared mutual relationships based on the "Yellow religion" (Gelug sect of Buddhism), obliged to provide aid each other against "internal and external enemies", declared free trade etc. for facsimile of Mongolian and Tibetan originals and for comments to text). The Mongolian representatives signing the treaty were foreign minister Da Lama Ravdan and commander-in-chief Manlaibaatar Damdinsüren. The Tibetan representatives who signed this document were Dalai Lama's representative Agvan Dorjiev, a Buryat, i.e. subject of Russia, and Tibetan officials in Mongolia: Ngawang Choizin, Yeshe Gyatso and Gendun Kalsang. There existed some doubts to the validity of this treaty: the 13th Dalai Lama denied that he had authorized Dorjiev to negotiate political issues. It was supposed more important that neither the cleric nor the Tibetan government appeared to have ever ratified the treaty. Nevertheless such ratification in that time monarchic Mongolia and Tibet was not necessary.
The Russian government maintained that, as a Russian subject, Dorjiev could not possibly act in a diplomatic capacity on behalf of the Dalai Lama. Nevertheless, before signing the treaty, Dorjiev met in Mongolia I. Ya. Korostovets, Russian plenipotentiary in Urga, and told him that Tibet wants to come in treaties with Mongolia and Russia. Korostovets, having mentioned that "Khlakha (Outer Mongoloia) had just declared its independence, recognized by Russia", had no objections against conclusion of treaty between Mongolia and Tibet, but he was against a treaty of Tibet with Russia 
According to the 14th Dalai Lama, this treaty was signed under the reign of the 13th Dalai Lama.
There are data that the treaty signed by Russia with Mongolia in 1912 (i.e. before signing the treaty with Tibet) meant international recognition of Mongolia as a state which was not required a sanction from a third side; as a result, the treaty between Tibet and Mongolia is considered as de jure recognition of Tibet as a state.
In any case, the independence of both Tibet and Mongolia continued not to be recognized by most other powers, which continued to recognize at least the suzerainty of the Republic of China over these areas. Even Russia and the UK were more comfortable with formally recognizing China's suzerainty and keeping an ambivalent position towards Mongolia and Tibet's independence. In addition, there was a concern among the Western powers (again particularly Russia and UK) that recognizing Tibetan or Mongolian independence would allow those areas to come under the other power's influence, respectively, a situation which all concerned believed to be worse than a situation in which those areas were nominally under the control of a weak China.
News of the treaty aroused considerable suspicion amongst the British negotiators at the Simla Convention, who feared that Russia might use the treaty to gain influence on Tibetan matters. While China ultimately did not sign the Simla Convention, a similar treaty, the tripartite Treaty of Kyakhta, was signed by Mongolia, the Republic of China and Russia on 25 May 1915. The agreement affirmed Mongolia's complete autonomy in internal matters and Russian privileges in Mongolia, at the same time formally recognized China's suzerainty over the country.

It then became incumbent upon China to take official note of the situation, especially as foreign complications could not be faced in view of her domestic embarrassments.

Consequently on November 5, 1913, there was concluded a Russo-Chinese agreement wherein Russia recognized that Outer Mongolia was under the suzerainty of China, and China, on her part, admitted the autonomy of Outer Mongolia. The essential element in the situation was the fact that Russia stood behind the Mongols with money and arms and China's hand was forced at a time when she was powerless to resist.

Quite naturally, Mongolia's political status has been a sore point with China and it is hardly surprising that she should have awaited an opportunity to reclaim what she considered to be her own.
This opportunity arrived with the collapse of Russia and the spread of Bolshevism, for the Mongols were dependent upon Russia for material assistance in anything resembling military operations, although, as early as 1914, they had begun to realize that they were cultivating a dangerous friend. 

The Mongolian army, at the most, numbered only two or three thousand poorly equipped and undisciplined troops who would require money and organization before they could become an effective fighting force.

Treaty of Kyakhta (1915)

Signed on 25 May 1915, the Treaty of Kyakhta was a tri-party treaty between RussiaMongolia, and China.
Russia and China recognized Outer Mongolia's autonomy (as part of Chinese territory); Mongolia recognized China's suzerainty, and autonomous Mongolia has no right to conclude international treaties with foreign countries respecting political and territorial questions.
The treaty severely curtailed the independent status of Mongolia declared in 1911, but eventually became moot after the October Revolution of 1917, and the declaration of theMongolian People's Republic in 1921.

The Chinese were not slow to appreciate these conditions and General Hsu Shu-tseng, popularly known as "Little Hsu," by a clever bit of Oriental intrigue sent four thousand soldiers to Urga with the excuse of protecting the Mongols from a so-called threatened invasion of Buriats and brigands. A little later he himself arrived in a motor car and, when the stage was set, brought such pressure to bear upon the Hutukhtu and his Cabinet that they had no recourse except to cancel Mongolia's autonomy and ask to return to their former place under Chinese rule.

This they did on November 17, 1919, in a formal Memorial addressed to the President of the Chinese Republic, which is quoted below as it appeared in the Peking press, under date of November 24, 1919:

"We, the Ministers and Vice-Ministers [here follow their names and ranks] of all the departments of the autonomous Government of Outer Mongolia, and all the princes, dukes, hutukhtus and lamas and others resident at Urga, hereby jointly and severally submit the following petition for the esteemed perusal of His Excellency the President of the Republic of China: —

"Outer Mongolia has been a dependency of China since the reign of the Emperor Kang Hsi, remaining loyal for over two hundred years, the entire population, from princes and dukes down to the common people having enjoyed the blessings of peace. During the reign of the Emperor Tao Kwang changes in the established institutions, which were opposed to Mongolian sentiment, caused dissatisfaction which was aggravated by the corruption of the administration during the last days of the Manchu Dynasty.

 Taking advantage of this Mongolian dissatisfaction, foreigners instigated and assisted the independence movement. Upon the Kiakhta Convention 1915, being signed the autonomy of Outer Mongolia was held a fait accompli, China retaining an empty suzerainty while the officials and people of Outer Mongolia lost many of their old rights and privileges. Since the establishment of this autonomous government no progress whatsoever has been chronicled, the affairs of government being indeed plunged in a state of chaos, causing deep pessimism.
"Lately, chaotic conditions have also reigned supreme in Russia, reports of revolutionary elements threatening our frontiers having been frequently received. Moreover, since the Russians have no united government it is only natural that they are powerless to carry out the provisions of the treaties, and now that they have no control over their subjects the Buriat tribes have constantly conspired and cooperated with bandits, and repeatedly sent delegates to Urga urging our Government to join with them and form a Pan-Mongolian nation.

PhotobucketThat this propaganda work, so varied and so persistent, which aims at usurping Chinese suzerainty and undermining the autonomy of Outer Mongolia, does more harm than good to Outer Mongolia, our Government is well aware. 

The Buriats, with their bandit Allies, now considering us unwilling to espouse their cause, contemplate dispatching troops to violate our frontiers and to compel our submission. Furthermore, forces from the so-called White Army have forcibly occupied Tanu Ulianghai, an old possession of Outer Mongolia, and attacked both Chinese and Mongolian troops, this being followed by the entry of the Red Army, thus making the situation impossible.

"Now that both our internal and external affairs have reached such a climax, we, the members of the Government, in view of the present situation, have assembled all the princes, dukes, lamas and others and have held frequent meetings to discuss the question of our future welfare. Those present have been unanimously of the opinion that the old bonds of friendship having been restored our autonomy should be canceled, since Chinese and Mongolians are filled with a common purpose and ideal.

"The result of our decision has been duly reported to His Holiness the Bogdo Jetsun Damba Hutukhtu Khan and has received his approval and support. Such being the position we now unanimously petition His Excellency the President that the old order of affairs be restored."
"Premier and Acting Minister of the Interior, Prince Lama Batma Dorjoo.
"Vice-Minister, Prince of Tarkhan Puntzuk Cheilin.
"Vice-Minister, Great Lama of Beliktu, Prince Puntzuk Torgoo.
"Minister of Foreign Affairs, Duke Cheilin Torgoo.
"Vice-Minister, Dalai Prince Cheitantnun Lomour.
"Vice-Minister, Prince of Ochi, Kaotzuktanba.
"Minister of War, Prince of Eltoni Jamuyen Torgoo.
"Vice-Minister, Prince of Eltoni Selunto Chihloh.
"Vice-Minister, Prince of Eltoni Punktzu Laptan.
"Vice-Minister, Prince of Itkemur Chitu Wachir.
"Minister of Finance, Prince Lama Loobitsan Paletan.
"Vice-Minister, Prince Torgee Cheilin.
"Vice-Minister, Prince of Suchuketu Tehmutgu Kejwan.
"Minister of Justice, Dalai of Chiechenkhan Wananin.
"Vice-Minister, Prince of Daichinchihlun Chackehbatehorhu.
"Vice-Minister, Prince of Cholikota Lama Dashtunyupu."

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Naturally, the President of China graciously consented to allow the prodigal to return and "killed the fatted calf" by conferring high honors and titles upon the Hutukhtu. Moreover, he appointed the Living Buddha's good friend (?) "Little Hsu" to convey them to him.

Thus, Mongolia again has become a part of China. Who knows what the future has in store for her? But events are moving rapidly and by the time this book is published the curtain may have risen upon a new act of Mongolia's tragedy.

Map ofr Mongolian Expedition
Map of Mongolia and China, Showing Route of Second 
Asiatic Expedition in Broken Lines



Signed at Peking on the 5th (18th) November 1913. 

The Russian Government having formulated the principles consisting the basis of its 
relations with China regarding Outer Mongolia, and the Chinese Government having 
signified its approval thereof, the two 'Powers agree as follows 

1. Russia recognizes Outer Mongolia as being under the suzerainty of China. 

2. China recognizes the autonomy of Outer Mongolia. 

3. Recognizing the exclusive right of the Mongols of Outer Mongolia to 
administer their internal affairs and to settle all commercial and industrial questions 
concerning autonomous Mongolia, China will not maintain there either civil or military 
officials, and will abstain from all colonization, - it being understood, however, that a 
dignitary sent by the Chinese Government can reside in Urga, accompanied by the 
requisite subordinate staff and an escort. Also China may station in certain localities 
of Outer Mongolia, to be arranged subsequently, agents for the protection of the 
interests of her subjects. Russia, in turn, undertakes not to maintain troops in Outer 
Mongolia, with the exception of Consular guards, nor to interfere with the 
administration, and to refrain from colonization. 

4. China will accept the good offices of Russia to establish her relations with 
Outer Mongolia conformably with the above principles and the stipulations of the 
Convention of Urga concluded between Russia and Mongolia on November 3rd, 

5. Questions regarding the interests of China and Russia in Outer Mongolia 
arising from the new conditions will form the subject of subsequent negotiations. 

The Notes exchanged are to the following effect: 

I- Russia recognizes that the territory of Outer Mongolia forms part of Chinese 

2- In any negotiations regarding political and territorial questions between the 
Chinese and Russian Governments, the authorities of Outer Mongolia will participate. 

3- All three parties will participate in the negotiations referred to in Article 5 of the 
Declaration and designate the place of meeting. 

4- Autonomous Outer Mongolia will comprise the regions formerly under the 
jurisdiction of the Chinese Amban at Urga, the Tartar General at Uliassutai, and the 
Chinese Amban at Kobdo but since no detailed maps exist and the boundaries are 
uncertain, it is agreed that the frontier of Outer Mongolia, together with the 
boundaries between Kobdo and the Altai Mountains, shall be the Subject of 

negotiations as provided in Article 5 of the Declaration. 

Protocol annexed to Russo-Mongolian Agreement of the 21st October (3rd November 1912)

Protocol annexed to Russo-Mongolian Agreement
of the 21st October (3rd November 1912)

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By virtue of the enactment of the second article of the agreement, signed on this
(late between Actual State Councillor, Ivan Korostovetz, Plenipotentiary of the
Imperial Russian Government, and the President of the Council of Ministers of
Mongolia, Sain-noin Khan Namnan-Souroun, the Protector of ten thousand
doctrines the Plenipotentiary and Minister of the Interior, Tchin-souzouktou Tzinvan
Lama Tzerin-Tchimet the Plenipotentiary and Minister for Foreign Affairs,
Daitzin-van Handa-dorji of the rank of Khan-erdeni the Plenipotentiary and
Minister of War, Erdeni Dalai Tzun-van Gombo-Souroun the Plenipotentiary and
Minister of Finance, Tuuchetou Tzun-van Tchakdorjab and the Plenipotentiary
and Minister of Justice, Erdeni Tzun-van Namsarai, on the authority of the Ruler
of Mongolia, the Mongolian Government, and the Ruling Princes the abovenamed
Plenipotentiaries have come to an agreement respecting the following
articles, in which are set forth the rights and privileges of Russian subjects in
Mongolia, some of which they already enjoy, and the rights and privileges of
Mongolian subjects in Russia

Russians subjects, as formerly, shall enjoy the right to reside and move freely
from one place to another throughout Mongolia; to engage there in every kind of
commercial, industrial, and other business; and to enter into agreements of
various kinds, whether with individuals, or finds, or institutions, official or private,
Russian, Mongolian, Chinese, or foreign.

Russian subjects, as formerly, shall enjoy the right at all times to import and
export, without payment of import and export dues, every kind of product of the
soil and industry of Russia, Mongolia. and China, and other countries, and to
trade freely in it without payment of any duties, taxes, or other dues.
The enactments of this (2nd) article shall not extend to combined Russo-Chinese
undertakings, or to Russian subjects falsely declaring themselves to be owners
of wares not their property.

Russian credit institutions shall have the right to open branches in Mongolia, and
to transact all kinds of financial and other business, whether with individuals,
institutions, or companies.

Russian subjects may conclude purchases and sales in cash or by an exchange
of wares (barter), and they may conclude agreements on credit. Neither
khoshuns nor the Mongolian Treasury shall be held responsible for the debts of
private individuals.

The Mongolian authorities shall not preclude Mongolians or Chinese from
completing any kind of commercial agreement with Russian subjects, from
entering into their personal service, or into commercial and industrial
undertakings formed by them. No rights of monopoly as regards commerce or
industry shall be granted to any official or private companies, institutions, or
individuals in Mongolia. it is, of course, understood that companies and
individuals who have already received such monopolies from the Mongolian
Government previous to the conclusion of this agreement shall retain their rights
and privileges until the expiry of the period fixed.

Russian subjects shall be everywhere granted the right, whether in towns or
‘khoshuns', to hold allotments on lease, or to acquire them as their own property
for the purpose of organizing commercial industrial establishments, and also for
the purpose of constructing houses, shops, and stores. In addition, Russian
subjects shall have the right to lease vacant lands for cultivation. it is, of course,
understood that these allotments shall be obtained and leased for the abovespecified
purposes, and not for speculative aims.
These allotments shall he assigned by agreement with the Mongolian
Government in accordance with existing laws of Mongolia, everywhere excepting
in sacred places and pasture lands.

Russian subjects shall be empowered to enter into agreements with the
Mongolian Government respecting the working of minerals and timber, fisheries,

The Russian Government shall have the right, in agreement with the Government
of Mongolia, to appoint consuls in those parts of Mongolia it shall deem
Similarly, the Mongolian Government shall be empowered to have Government
agents at those frontier parts of the Empire where, by mutual agreement. It shall
be found necessary.

At points where there are Russian consulates, as also in other localities of
importance for Russian trade, there shall be allotted, by mutual agreement
between Russian consuls and the Mongolian Government, special factories for
various branches of industry and the residence of Russian subjects. These
factories shall be under the exclusive control of the above-mentioned consuls, or
of the heads of Russian commercial companies if there be no Russian consul.

Russian subjects. in agreement with the Mongolian Government shall retain the
right to institute, at their own cost, a postal service for the dispatch of letters and
the transit of wares between various localities in Mongolia and also between
specified localities and points on the Russian frontier. In the event of the
construction of ‘stages’ and other necessary buildings, the regulations set forth in
article 6 of this protocol must be duly observed.

Russian consuls in Mongolia, in case of need, shall avail themselves of
Mongolian Government postal establishments and messengers for the dispatch
of official correspondence, and for other official requirements, provided that the
gratuitous requisition for this purpose shall not exceed one hundred horses and
thirty camels per month. On every occasion, a courier's passport must be
obtained from the Government of Mongolia. When travelling, Russian consuls,
and Russian officials in general, shall avail themselves of the same
establishments upon payment. The right to avail themselves of Mongolian
Government stages' shall be extended to privates individuals, who are Russian
subjects, upon payment for the use of such ' stages ' of amounts which shall be
determined in agreement with the Mongolian Government.

Russian subjects shall be granted the right to sail their own merchant-vessels on,
and to trade with the inhabitants along the banks of, those rivers and their
tributaries which, running first through Mongolia, subsequently enter Russian
territory. The Russian Government shall afford the Government of Mongolia
assistance in the improvement of navigation on these rivers, the establishment of
the necessary beacons, &c The Mongolian Government authorities shall assign
on these rivers places for the berthing of vessels, for the construction of wharves
and warehouses, for the preparation of fuel, etc., being guided on these
occasions by the enactments of article 6 of the present protocol.

Russian subjects shall have the right to avail themselves of all land and water
routes for the carriage of wares and the droving of cattle, and, upon agreement
with the Mongolians authorities, they may construct, at their own cost, bridges,
ferries, &c with the right to exact a special due from persons crossing over.

Travelling cattle, the property of Russian subjects, may stop for the purpose of
resting and feeding. In the event of prolonged halts being necessary, the local
authorities shall assign proper pasturage areas along travelling cattle routes, and
at cattle markets. Fees shall be exacted for the use of these pasturing areas for
periods exceeding three months.

The established usage of the Russian frontier population harvesting (hay), as
also hunting and fishing, across the Mongolian border shall remain in force in the
future without any alteration.

Agreements between Russian subjects and institutions on the one side and
Mongolians and Chinese on the other may be concluded verbally or in writing,
and the contracting parties may present the agreement concluded to the local
Government authorities for certification. Should the latter see any objection to
certifying the contract, they must immediately notify tile fact to a Russian consul
and the misunderstanding which has arisen shall be settled in agreement with

It is hereby laid down that contracts respecting real estate must be in written
form, and presented for certification and confirmation to the proper Mongolian
Government authorities and a Russian consul. Documents bestowing rights to
exploit natural resources require the confirmation of the Government of Mongolia.
In the event of disputes arising over agreements concluded verbally or in writing,
the parties may settle the matter amicably with the assistance of arbitrators
selected by each party. Should no settlement be reached by this method, the
matter shall be decided by a mixed legal commission.

There shall be both permanent and temporary mixed legal commissions.
Permanent commissions shall be instituted at the places of residence of Russian
consuls, and shall consist of the consul, or his representative, and a delegate of
the Mongolian authorities of corresponding rank. Temporary commissions shall
be instituted at places other than those already specified, as cases arise, and
shall consist of representatives of a Russian consul and the prince of that
‘khoshun’ to which the defendant belongs or in which he resides. Mixed
commissions shall be empowered to call in as experts persons with a knowledge
of the case from among Russian subjects, Mongolians. and Chinese. The
decisions of mixed legal commissions shall be put into execution' without delay,
in case of Russian subjects through a Russian consul and in case of Mongolians
and Chinese through the prince of the ‘khoshun’ to which the defendant belongs
or in which lie is resident.

The present protocol shall come into force from the date of its signature.
In witness whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries, finding, upon comparison of
the two parallel texts of the present protocol - Russian and Mongol - drawn up in
duplicate, that the texts correspond, have signed each of them, affixed their
seals, and exchanged texts.

Executed at Urga, the 21st October 1912 and by the Mongolian calendar, on the
twenty-fourth day of the last autumn moon, in the second year of the
administration of the ‘Unanimously Proclaimed’

In the original follow the signature of M. Korostovetz, Minister Plenipotentiary ;
and in the Mongol language the signatures of the President of the Mongolian
Council of Ministers, and the Plenipotentiaries, the Ministers of the Interior,
Foreign Affairs, War, Finance, and of Justice.
历史性照片,看看有没有认识的人! - 吾汝尼沁蛊日谣 - 吾汝尼沁蛊日谣 ---超憨 笔得阿歌图

Орос-Монголын гэрээг байгуулав

1912 он: Гадаад Монголын автономийг хүлээн зөвшөөрсөн Орос-Монголын гэрээг өнөөгөөс 98 жилийн өмнө байгуулжээ. Гадаад Монголын дөрвөн аймаг 1911 оны арваннэгдүгээр сард тусгаар тогтносон Монгол Улсыг байгуулсан тунхагийг гаргасан байлаа. Тэр цагт Орос, Монголын хооронд худалдаа, аж үйлдвэрийн нэлээд бат бэх харилцаа байсан ба тэр нь Орос-Хятад хоёрын 1885 оны Тэнжиний, 1860 оны Бээжингийн, 1881 оны Петербургийн  гэрээгээр зохицуулагдаж байжээ. 

Тусгаар тогтнолыг тунхагласан нь орон нутгийн зах зээл дэх Хятадын капиталын давамгайллыг тооцон үзэж байсан Оросын Монголд хандах эдийн засгийн бодлогыг өөрчлөх ёстой байлаа. Өргөөгийн Засгийн газартай байгуулах гэрээний төслийг наймдугаар сар гэхэд бэлтгэж дууссан ба 1912 оны арваннэгдүгээр сарын 3-нд түүнд гарын үсгээ зурцгаажээ. Гэрээнд гарын үсэг зурах ёслол Их  хүрээнд болж, Оросын төлөөлөгч Иван Яковлевич Коростовцев, Гадаад Монголын Засгийн газрын  бүрэн эрхт төлөөлөгч Сайн Ноён хаан Намнансүрэн, Чин сүжигт да лам Цэрэнчимэд, Чин ван Ханддорж, Жүн ван Чагдаржав, Жүн ван Гомбосүрэн, Жүн ван Намсрай  нар гарын үсгээ зуржээ. Гадаад Монголын автономийг Хаант Орос хүлээн зөвшөөрснөөр тэд “тогтоосон автономийн бүтцийг хэвээр хадгалан үлдэхийн тулд”  тусламжийг үзүүлнэ гэж үүрэг хүлээсэн байлаа. Гэрээний дагуу Гадаад Монголыг үндэсний засгийн газар нь захирч, Хятадын колоничлол ба Хятадын цэрэг байлгахыг зөвшөөрөхгүй гэсэн байжээ. Гэрээнд “Оросын харьяатуудын эдэлж байгаа эрхээс илүүтэй эрхийг  гадаад бусад харьятуудад  олгохгүй” гэсэн үүргийг монголчууд авсан байлаа. Үүнээс жилийн дараа 1913 онд Гадаад Монголын автономийг Орос-Хятадын Бээжингийн Зараханы гэрээний дагуу Хятадын Засгийн газар хүлээн зөвшөөрсөн байжээ. 

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