Friday, November 8, 2013

Protocol annexed to Russo-Mongolian Agreement of the 21st October (3rd November 1912)

Protocol annexed to Russo-Mongolian Agreement
of the 21st October (3rd November 1912)

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By virtue of the enactment of the second article of the agreement, signed on this
(late between Actual State Councillor, Ivan Korostovetz, Plenipotentiary of the
Imperial Russian Government, and the President of the Council of Ministers of
Mongolia, Sain-noin Khan Namnan-Souroun, the Protector of ten thousand
doctrines the Plenipotentiary and Minister of the Interior, Tchin-souzouktou Tzinvan
Lama Tzerin-Tchimet the Plenipotentiary and Minister for Foreign Affairs,
Daitzin-van Handa-dorji of the rank of Khan-erdeni the Plenipotentiary and
Minister of War, Erdeni Dalai Tzun-van Gombo-Souroun the Plenipotentiary and
Minister of Finance, Tuuchetou Tzun-van Tchakdorjab and the Plenipotentiary
and Minister of Justice, Erdeni Tzun-van Namsarai, on the authority of the Ruler
of Mongolia, the Mongolian Government, and the Ruling Princes the abovenamed
Plenipotentiaries have come to an agreement respecting the following
articles, in which are set forth the rights and privileges of Russian subjects in
Mongolia, some of which they already enjoy, and the rights and privileges of
Mongolian subjects in Russia

Russians subjects, as formerly, shall enjoy the right to reside and move freely
from one place to another throughout Mongolia; to engage there in every kind of
commercial, industrial, and other business; and to enter into agreements of
various kinds, whether with individuals, or finds, or institutions, official or private,
Russian, Mongolian, Chinese, or foreign.

Russian subjects, as formerly, shall enjoy the right at all times to import and
export, without payment of import and export dues, every kind of product of the
soil and industry of Russia, Mongolia. and China, and other countries, and to
trade freely in it without payment of any duties, taxes, or other dues.
The enactments of this (2nd) article shall not extend to combined Russo-Chinese
undertakings, or to Russian subjects falsely declaring themselves to be owners
of wares not their property.

Russian credit institutions shall have the right to open branches in Mongolia, and
to transact all kinds of financial and other business, whether with individuals,
institutions, or companies.

Russian subjects may conclude purchases and sales in cash or by an exchange
of wares (barter), and they may conclude agreements on credit. Neither
khoshuns nor the Mongolian Treasury shall be held responsible for the debts of
private individuals.

The Mongolian authorities shall not preclude Mongolians or Chinese from
completing any kind of commercial agreement with Russian subjects, from
entering into their personal service, or into commercial and industrial
undertakings formed by them. No rights of monopoly as regards commerce or
industry shall be granted to any official or private companies, institutions, or
individuals in Mongolia. it is, of course, understood that companies and
individuals who have already received such monopolies from the Mongolian
Government previous to the conclusion of this agreement shall retain their rights
and privileges until the expiry of the period fixed.

Russian subjects shall be everywhere granted the right, whether in towns or
‘khoshuns', to hold allotments on lease, or to acquire them as their own property
for the purpose of organizing commercial industrial establishments, and also for
the purpose of constructing houses, shops, and stores. In addition, Russian
subjects shall have the right to lease vacant lands for cultivation. it is, of course,
understood that these allotments shall be obtained and leased for the abovespecified
purposes, and not for speculative aims.
These allotments shall he assigned by agreement with the Mongolian
Government in accordance with existing laws of Mongolia, everywhere excepting
in sacred places and pasture lands.

Russian subjects shall be empowered to enter into agreements with the
Mongolian Government respecting the working of minerals and timber, fisheries,

The Russian Government shall have the right, in agreement with the Government
of Mongolia, to appoint consuls in those parts of Mongolia it shall deem
Similarly, the Mongolian Government shall be empowered to have Government
agents at those frontier parts of the Empire where, by mutual agreement. It shall
be found necessary.

At points where there are Russian consulates, as also in other localities of
importance for Russian trade, there shall be allotted, by mutual agreement
between Russian consuls and the Mongolian Government, special factories for
various branches of industry and the residence of Russian subjects. These
factories shall be under the exclusive control of the above-mentioned consuls, or
of the heads of Russian commercial companies if there be no Russian consul.

Russian subjects. in agreement with the Mongolian Government shall retain the
right to institute, at their own cost, a postal service for the dispatch of letters and
the transit of wares between various localities in Mongolia and also between
specified localities and points on the Russian frontier. In the event of the
construction of ‘stages’ and other necessary buildings, the regulations set forth in
article 6 of this protocol must be duly observed.

Russian consuls in Mongolia, in case of need, shall avail themselves of
Mongolian Government postal establishments and messengers for the dispatch
of official correspondence, and for other official requirements, provided that the
gratuitous requisition for this purpose shall not exceed one hundred horses and
thirty camels per month. On every occasion, a courier's passport must be
obtained from the Government of Mongolia. When travelling, Russian consuls,
and Russian officials in general, shall avail themselves of the same
establishments upon payment. The right to avail themselves of Mongolian
Government stages' shall be extended to privates individuals, who are Russian
subjects, upon payment for the use of such ' stages ' of amounts which shall be
determined in agreement with the Mongolian Government.

Russian subjects shall be granted the right to sail their own merchant-vessels on,
and to trade with the inhabitants along the banks of, those rivers and their
tributaries which, running first through Mongolia, subsequently enter Russian
territory. The Russian Government shall afford the Government of Mongolia
assistance in the improvement of navigation on these rivers, the establishment of
the necessary beacons, &c The Mongolian Government authorities shall assign
on these rivers places for the berthing of vessels, for the construction of wharves
and warehouses, for the preparation of fuel, etc., being guided on these
occasions by the enactments of article 6 of the present protocol.

Russian subjects shall have the right to avail themselves of all land and water
routes for the carriage of wares and the droving of cattle, and, upon agreement
with the Mongolians authorities, they may construct, at their own cost, bridges,
ferries, &c with the right to exact a special due from persons crossing over.

Travelling cattle, the property of Russian subjects, may stop for the purpose of
resting and feeding. In the event of prolonged halts being necessary, the local
authorities shall assign proper pasturage areas along travelling cattle routes, and
at cattle markets. Fees shall be exacted for the use of these pasturing areas for
periods exceeding three months.

The established usage of the Russian frontier population harvesting (hay), as
also hunting and fishing, across the Mongolian border shall remain in force in the
future without any alteration.

Agreements between Russian subjects and institutions on the one side and
Mongolians and Chinese on the other may be concluded verbally or in writing,
and the contracting parties may present the agreement concluded to the local
Government authorities for certification. Should the latter see any objection to
certifying the contract, they must immediately notify tile fact to a Russian consul
and the misunderstanding which has arisen shall be settled in agreement with

It is hereby laid down that contracts respecting real estate must be in written
form, and presented for certification and confirmation to the proper Mongolian
Government authorities and a Russian consul. Documents bestowing rights to
exploit natural resources require the confirmation of the Government of Mongolia.
In the event of disputes arising over agreements concluded verbally or in writing,
the parties may settle the matter amicably with the assistance of arbitrators
selected by each party. Should no settlement be reached by this method, the
matter shall be decided by a mixed legal commission.

There shall be both permanent and temporary mixed legal commissions.
Permanent commissions shall be instituted at the places of residence of Russian
consuls, and shall consist of the consul, or his representative, and a delegate of
the Mongolian authorities of corresponding rank. Temporary commissions shall
be instituted at places other than those already specified, as cases arise, and
shall consist of representatives of a Russian consul and the prince of that
‘khoshun’ to which the defendant belongs or in which he resides. Mixed
commissions shall be empowered to call in as experts persons with a knowledge
of the case from among Russian subjects, Mongolians. and Chinese. The
decisions of mixed legal commissions shall be put into execution' without delay,
in case of Russian subjects through a Russian consul and in case of Mongolians
and Chinese through the prince of the ‘khoshun’ to which the defendant belongs
or in which lie is resident.

The present protocol shall come into force from the date of its signature.
In witness whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries, finding, upon comparison of
the two parallel texts of the present protocol - Russian and Mongol - drawn up in
duplicate, that the texts correspond, have signed each of them, affixed their
seals, and exchanged texts.

Executed at Urga, the 21st October 1912 and by the Mongolian calendar, on the
twenty-fourth day of the last autumn moon, in the second year of the
administration of the ‘Unanimously Proclaimed’

In the original follow the signature of M. Korostovetz, Minister Plenipotentiary ;
and in the Mongol language the signatures of the President of the Mongolian
Council of Ministers, and the Plenipotentiaries, the Ministers of the Interior,
Foreign Affairs, War, Finance, and of Justice.
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Орос-Монголын гэрээг байгуулав

1912 он: Гадаад Монголын автономийг хүлээн зөвшөөрсөн Орос-Монголын гэрээг өнөөгөөс 98 жилийн өмнө байгуулжээ. Гадаад Монголын дөрвөн аймаг 1911 оны арваннэгдүгээр сард тусгаар тогтносон Монгол Улсыг байгуулсан тунхагийг гаргасан байлаа. Тэр цагт Орос, Монголын хооронд худалдаа, аж үйлдвэрийн нэлээд бат бэх харилцаа байсан ба тэр нь Орос-Хятад хоёрын 1885 оны Тэнжиний, 1860 оны Бээжингийн, 1881 оны Петербургийн  гэрээгээр зохицуулагдаж байжээ. 

Тусгаар тогтнолыг тунхагласан нь орон нутгийн зах зээл дэх Хятадын капиталын давамгайллыг тооцон үзэж байсан Оросын Монголд хандах эдийн засгийн бодлогыг өөрчлөх ёстой байлаа. Өргөөгийн Засгийн газартай байгуулах гэрээний төслийг наймдугаар сар гэхэд бэлтгэж дууссан ба 1912 оны арваннэгдүгээр сарын 3-нд түүнд гарын үсгээ зурцгаажээ. Гэрээнд гарын үсэг зурах ёслол Их  хүрээнд болж, Оросын төлөөлөгч Иван Яковлевич Коростовцев, Гадаад Монголын Засгийн газрын  бүрэн эрхт төлөөлөгч Сайн Ноён хаан Намнансүрэн, Чин сүжигт да лам Цэрэнчимэд, Чин ван Ханддорж, Жүн ван Чагдаржав, Жүн ван Гомбосүрэн, Жүн ван Намсрай  нар гарын үсгээ зуржээ. Гадаад Монголын автономийг Хаант Орос хүлээн зөвшөөрснөөр тэд “тогтоосон автономийн бүтцийг хэвээр хадгалан үлдэхийн тулд”  тусламжийг үзүүлнэ гэж үүрэг хүлээсэн байлаа. Гэрээний дагуу Гадаад Монголыг үндэсний засгийн газар нь захирч, Хятадын колоничлол ба Хятадын цэрэг байлгахыг зөвшөөрөхгүй гэсэн байжээ. Гэрээнд “Оросын харьяатуудын эдэлж байгаа эрхээс илүүтэй эрхийг  гадаад бусад харьятуудад  олгохгүй” гэсэн үүргийг монголчууд авсан байлаа. Үүнээс жилийн дараа 1913 онд Гадаад Монголын автономийг Орос-Хятадын Бээжингийн Зараханы гэрээний дагуу Хятадын Засгийн газар хүлээн зөвшөөрсөн байжээ. 

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