Tuesday, June 23, 2015



                                                                                                                            by Unentugs Shagdar

Background /Country profile
Mongolia is a landlocked country with very large land and a population of approximately 3 million people. The average altitude is 1,589 m. and most of the land area is either pasture or desert. Mongolia’s geography renders its natural environment very fragile at the best of times, but provides additional and serious challenges when international phenomena such as climate change are taken into account. Mongolia is located in northeast Asia between Russia and China. The country has a total area of 1,565,600 km2, almost three times the size of France. Mongolia is the world’s 10th largest country, but has a population of only 3 million, making it the least densely populated country in the world. The country shares a 4,673 km long border with China on its eastern, western and southern sides and a 3,485 km long border with Russia to the north. The population of Mongolia is about 3 million people, giving it one of the lowest population densities of any country in the world.
Around 15 million people claiming Mongol identity live throughout the world. Approximately 3 million live in the independent state of Mongolia, while 5.9 million live in China, mainly in Autonomic Republic of Inner Mongolia, and partly in Xinjiang and Qinghai, Gansu provinces of China. About 3 million live in Russia in the area around Lake Baikal, Siberia and Caspian Sea, mainly in Republic of Buryat-Mongolia, Republic of Tuva-Mongolia, and Republic of Khalimag-Mongolia, and Altai Republic of the Russian Federation.
The latitude of Mongolia, between 42 and 52 degrees north, is roughly the same as that of Central Europe or the northern United States and southern Canada. However, because the country is far from the ocean and has a relatively high median altitude, the climate is characterized by an extreme continental climate with large temperature fluctuations and low total rainfall. Total annual rainfall in Ulaanbaatar averages 220 mm (~10 inches). Most precipitation falls during the short summer, while winter is generally dry and extremely cold. High temperatures in summer average about 25 C (77 F), while winter low temperatures average -25 C (-13 F). 

While Mongolia's extreme climatic conditions limit crop agriculture, the country is well suited for livestock production. Nomadic herding of livestock, primarily sheep, goats, horses, cattle, yaks and camels, is the foundation of the Mongolian economy, and forms the basis of the nation's cultural traditions. Approximately 65% of national territory is covered by extensive grasslands, while the Gobi desert dominates the south of the country. Forests and mountains cover approximately 12% of the total land area, for the most part in the nation's northernmost regions.

Brief History of Mongolia
Mongols established many states[1] such as Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Nirun, the Khukh Turick, the Khitan and the Mongol Empire from the 3rd century BC. The name Mongol appeared in the 7th century but it's does not mean that Mongol ethnicity originated in this time.
The area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various Nomadic Empires, including the Hunnu (Xiong­nu), the Sumbe (Xianbei), the Nirun, the Gökturks, the Mongol Empire, the Yuan Dynasty, and the Golden Horde, the Il Khanate, the Chagatai Khanate, the Outer and Inner Mongolia, Zunghar Western Mongolia and oth­ers.
Mongolians are an ancient nation. Chinese historians have confirmed the existence of Mongolian tribes as far back as the 10th century BC[2]. At that time, Mongolians inhabited eastern central Asia and most parts of northern Manchuria[3]. The first well known Mongolian was Bodonchar (-970 BC), who led the Mongolian people out of oblivion[4]. After him his children became rulers of all Mongolian tribes[5].
The first Mongolian state Zhongshan was established in 6th century - 296 BC, created by the ancient Mongols the nomadic Xianyu tribe[6]. In the ancient Chinese sources, it is called a state of the Baidi. The name is often used to mean "nomadic barbarians[7]. Exactly, its name means "Central Mountains", as opposed to the Western Mountains of Xianyu or the Eastern Mountains of Xianyu (Xianyu means name of the ancient Mongols).
The first Mongolian Empire was established in 209 BC by Huns or Hunnu (Xiong­nu) people. The name Hunnu comes from two ancient Mongolian words. “Hun” means “man” and “nu” translates as “sun”[8].

The Hun Empire’s first king was Modun ShanYui, whose father Tumen ShanYui was chieftain of Hun’s most influential tribe. The Huns territory stretched from Korean peninsula in the Far East to Tian Shan Mountians in the northern China and from the southern section of the Great Wall to Lake Baikal in southern Siberia[9].
From 209 BC until its collapse in 98 AD, the Hun Empire was the most powerful nomadic nation residing in the sprawling Central Asian steppe and mountain[10]. But, after three hundred years of domination the Hun Empire imploded, ruined by internal conflicts between powerful chieftains. After the Hun Empire collapsed several other ambitions clans established their own states and dominated Mongolian territory up until 1200 AD[11].
The first domination state after the Hun’s collapse was the Sumbe (Xianbei) State, which lasted until the 3rd century BC. The Toba State finally took over the Sumbe State inn 250 AD and established its own state with a number of tribal allies. In turn the Tobas were defeated by the Nirun State, who were forced to hand the state over to Turkic (Gökturks) tribes who established the Tuger Kingdom on Mongolia in 552 AD[12]. Thousand of Turkic (Gökturks) people have arrived from the far west via the Altai Mountains during the 4th century AD. They extended the ancient feudal system, but were also defeated by their own internal conflicts in 745 AD. The Uigar tribe then became the most powerful in Central Asia, but were unable to dominate the whole of Mongolia. It was the Kidans, who had peacefully coexisted with several previous ruling tribes, who took over Mongolia in 907. Their dominance lasted until the 12th century when a number of Central Asian tribes invaded at the same time. There was now no ruler in Mongolia and this vast territory was divided and subdivided into tribal areas[13].

The Mongol Empire:

The most glorious period of Mongolian history began in 1206 when Chingis Khaan[14] united the Mongol tribes and embarked on a series of military conquests from northeast Asia to the Middle East and Europe. Throughout the 13th century the heirs of Chinggis Khaan expanded the Mongol Empire to the point where it became the largest empire in human history, stretching from Vietnam to Central Europe. In the 13th, 14th, and 15th century, various Mongol tribes roamed the steppes of Mongolia. One of these tribes was the Mongols.
The Mongol Rule: Between 1206 and 1758 years in the world. The Mongol Empire is one of great significance; for the better or worse of the world, it is not one that is to be forgotten[15].
By the mid-16th century, however, internal power struggles caused the empire to splinter, and by the 18th century the Manchu Qing Dynasty had subjugated all of what are today known as Outer and Inner Mongolia, and Oyrat-Western Mongolia.
During the 13-16th centuries, Mongolia developed in terms of its economy, culture, military strength and politics. It was a huge, sprawling empire which encompassed many separate Asian and European nations. Still known as the Golden Era of Mongolian history, during this time the Mongol Empire was the most powerful nation on earth. Chinggis Khaan was a great military general, statesman and Mongolian and all nomadic tribes’ national hero[16]. The Mongol Empire began to fall apart in 1368. This was bound up with the collapse of the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty, which had been established in China after Kublai Khan named Beijing the new Capital of the Mongol Empire. After the Mongol Empire collapsed several other ambitions Mongolian nobles (Chinggis Khan’s grandsons) established their own states (the Golden Horde, the Il Khanate, the Chagatai Khanate, the Mogul Dynasty, the Outer and Inner Mongolia, Jungar-Western Mongolia) and dominated a world civilization territory up until 1758 AD.
In the 13th century, Mongolia was one of the most powerful states in the world. Many of the worlds major world trade, investment routes passed through the capital of Mongolia, Kara Khorum. After having established the Empire, Chingis Khan undertook military campaigns against the neighboring states. In 1227 Chingis Khan died, leaving a large empire stretching from China to the Black Sea and Persia[17].
By the end of 14th century, the Mongolian empire covered most of the Eurasian continent[18]. The empire consisted of Four Dominions: the Yuan state (Mongolia and China), the Golden Horde (Russia and the Urals and Eastern Europe), the Tsagadai realm (Central Asia), and the IL Khan kingdom (Iran and the Middle East). From this time Mongolia was no longer the center of world trade and culture, and this marked the end of Mongolian empire.

Mongolian divided states: 

During the late-14th to 16th centuries, Mongolians lost their previous unity, the power of the Khan was greatly weakened, and the pattern of decentralized rule reemerged, as local lords (Chingis Khan’s grandsons’ clans) began to show significant autonomy in their affairs. The Mongolian nation started to disintegrate and the Oyrats formed their own monarchy. Mongolia was now divided into eastern and western parts. The eastern part itself split up into Outer Mongolia (Khalkh, Buryat) and Inner Mongolia. The Mongols waged war on each other continuously and dominance passed first to Oyrat Mongolia (in present day Xingjiang, Gangsu and Qinghai province in China, and Republic of Tuva, Republic Altay and Republic of Khalmiag in Russia, and southeastern Kazakstan), and then to eastern Mongolia.
By this time, the nomadic Zurchid tribe of Manchu had become powerful, had conquered all of China and had established the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) with its capital in Beijing. The Manchus moved to safeguard their northern flank against the Mongols. This was largely achieved in 1690s, because of very long civil wars among the Mongols. The Manchus subdued Inner Mongolia in the 1630s, Khalkh Mongolia in 1691 and Oyrat Mongolia in 1757. Also the Russian Empire had subjugated the Buryat-North Mongolia in 1688 (Lake Baikal in Siberia) and Tagna-Tuva Northwestern Mongolia in 1915. The Buryat Mongols started to migrate to Mongolia in the 1900s due to Russian oppression[19]. During the 1800s, as a result of Manchu administrative policies, the first distinction was made between northern and southern Mongolia. Inner Mongolia was virtually absorbed into Manchu-China, while Outer Mongolia was considered an "outside subordinate" state by the Manchu, and was largely ignored. The Manchurians conquered Mongolia in 1758 and the Man­chu Qing Dynasty’s colonization lasted for 150 years, it was the most tragic for the Mongols. In fact, the Manchu cut off the Mongolian state from the rest of world civilization for many centuries.

Mongolian independence: 

With the end of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of the Mongolia in 1911, a mount before establishing the Republic of China. /after a mount revolutionary ferment also emerged in Republic of China. / In 1911, the Khalkhs of Outer Mongolia declared their independence under the Khalkh Outer Mongolian, Bogd Khan.The Mongolian people, led by Bogd Khan, established a khanate uniting religion and state, with the intention of uniting all the Mongolian States (Khalkh-Outer Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, Oyrat-Western Mongolia, Buryat-North Mongolia and Tuva-Northwestern Mongolia). But this aim remained unachieved because of the attitude of Russia and China[20].
By the beginning of 20th century Mongolians were embroiled in a straggle for national liberation, which finally came to fruition in December 1911, when the Manchurians withdrew and Mongolia’s independence was proclaimed in Urguu (as Ulaanbaatar capital city was previously known), Mongolia’s theocratic ruler Bogd Khaan was awarded power across the entire country.
On November 3 and December 19, 1912, respectively, Mongolian-Russian and Mongolian-Tibetan agreements were signed in Niyslel Huree[21](as Ulaanbaatar capital city was previously known). The latter agreement granted mutual recognition of independence; the former only affirmed Mongolia. The Russian agreement and a protocol to it created a tsarist protectorate over Outer Mongolia. The Japanese, too, sought, unsuccessfully, to influence the independence movement in 1911 and 1912 with contributions of arms and money.

Following the mobilization of a Mongol army to liberate Inner Mongolia and Qinghai, several other agreements affecting Mongolia were reached. In November 5, 1913, agreement, Russia recognized Chinese[22] suzerainty over Mongolia, and China recognized just only Outer Mongolia's right to selfrule and to the control of its own commerce and industry foreign investments. China also agreed not to send troops into Mongolia. On May 25, 1915, a second, tripartite agreement (among China, Mongolia, and Russia), the Treaty of Kyakhta[23], formalized Mongolian autonomy. Russia's involvement in World War I, however, reduced the attention that the tsar's government could pay to Mongolia. This neglect, which occurred at the same time as new monarchical machinations in China, rekindled Japanese interest in, and aid to, anti-Chinese forces in Mongolia and neighboring Manchuria.
After socialist revolution broke out in Russia in November 1917, Japan moved to aid anti-Bolshevik forces in Mongolia, and a Japanese fostered pan-Mongol movement was established under the influence of the Buryat Mongols. A pan-Mongolia conference was held in February and March 1919 in Chita, Siberia. The participants decided to establish a Mongol state, comprising Outer Mongolia, Inner Mongolia, and Buryatia (present-day Republic of Buryat in the Russian Federation) and to send letters to the Versailles Peace Conference that ended World War I. Despite formation of a small provisional government--in which Outer Mongolia refused to participate--and promises of Japanese aid, the movement failed in the face of renewed Chinese efforts to regain control over all of Mongolia. In October 1919, a Chinese warlord army, emboldened d by the demise of the tsarist regime, just occupied Niyslel Huree (capital city of Mongolia) and received an acknowledgment of Chinese autonomy from the Bogdo Khan government. The Mongol army was disarmed and disbanded.  In October 1920, Russian White Guard troops under Baron Roman Nicolaus von Ungern-Sternberg invaded from Siberia.  In February 1921, after a fierce battle, Von Ungern-Sternberg drove the Chinese out of Niyslel Huree and occupied the city. The threatening actions of Chinese, Japanese, and White Russian forces greatly stimulated Mongolian nationalism during these 2 years. Mongolians two secret revolutionary circles emerged in Niyslel Huree in 1919, the military-oriented Dzuun (East) Huree Group, and the civilian-oriented Consul's Group. The Mongolian last King Bogdo Khan Jebtsundamba Khutuktu gave his encouragement and support to the revolutionary leaders, and in his name they appealed to Moscow for more assistance.

Socialist and Democratic Mongolia: 

On 11 July 1921, the socialist revolution, known as People’s Revolution took place. In 1924, the Mongolian People’s Party proclaimed Mongolia a People’s Republic’s first Constitution. As Mongolia maintained strong links with the former Soviet Union, the socialist era continued until 1990, when democratic changes first started in Mongolia[24].
The country’s first multi-party election was held in June 1990. The new parliament adopted Mongolia’s first democratic Constitution and democratic parliamentary republic operating with a President. Both parliament and president have to be directly elected by the general public. Throughout these political changes, Mongolia has slowly been paying its way towards a free market economy and way from the old economic system.

[1] [Mongolian ancient states: - Xiongnu (Hunnu) 209 BC – 93 AD; Xianbei (Sumbe) 93–234; Rouran, Nirun 330–555; Turkic Khaganate 552–744; Khitan Empire 907–1125;  Mongolian medieval states: - Mongol tribes 900s–1207; Khamag Mongol 1120–1206; Mongol Empire 1206–1691 (subdivisions: Great Mongol Empire 1206-1271; -the Yuan dynasty 1271–1368; -Golden Horde (Kazan Khanate, Astrakhan Khanate, Crimean Khanate, Siberia Khanate, Great Horde, Nogai Horde and White Horde) 1243-1783; -the Chagatai Khanate (Mughal Empire) 1266-1858; and the Ilkhanate 1256-1335); the Post-Imperial Mongolian states: the Mongol 1368–1691; Four Oirat 1399–1634; Kalmyk Khanate 1630-1724; Zunghar 1635–1758; Manchu Qing rule 1759–1911; Mongolian modern state: - Revolution 1911; Bogd Khaganate 1911–1921; Revolution 1921; People's Republic of Mongolia 1924–1992; Revolution 1990; Mongolia 1990–present.] History of Mongolia, the Academy of Sciences of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, 1981.
[2]Xu Elina-Qian, Historical Development of the Pre-Dynastic Khitan, Introduction to the Sources on the Pre-dynastic Khitan (pp.19-23), The Zizhi Tongjian (p.20), University of Helsinki, 2005. P.273; Chen, Guangchong, "Zizhi Tongjian", Comprehensive Mirror to Aid in Government, Encyclopedia of China, Chinese History Edition, 1st ed.
[3]Dorling Kindersley, History Year by Year, The Ultimate visual guide to the events that shaped the world, London, 2011, p.40.
[4]Vladimortsov, Boris, The Life of Chingis Khan, trans, Prince D.S. Mirky, New York,, 1930, p.74; trans. B. Blom, 1969.с. 74; Igor de Rachewiltz, The Secret History of the Mongols: A Mongolian Epic Chronicle of the Thirteenth Century,Brill: Leiden, The Netherlands, at xxvi.
[5]Монголын нууц товчоо, 1 дүгээр бүлэг, Хархорум хот, 1265 (Mongolian); William Hung, The Transmission of the Book Known as "The Secret History of the Mongols", Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, Vol. 14, No. 3/4 (Dec 1951), p.440.
[6] Dorling Kindersley, History Year by Year, The Ultimate visual guide to the events that shaped the world, Smithsonian Institute, London, 2011, p.60.
[7]Di Cosmo, Nicola; Michael Loewe and Edward L. Shaughnessy (1999/2007).The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 BC.. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. p. 949; Joseph P Yap, Wars with the Xiongnu: A Translation from Zizhi Tongjian, Bloomington, Indiana, 2009, p.13.
[8]Монгол Улсын Шинжлэх Ухааны Академи, Монголын түүхийн дээж бичиг, Улаанбаатар, 1992, дэвтэр 1. (Mongolian); Гумилёв Л. Н, Кочевые цивилизации Центральной Азии в трудах; и Гумилёв, Лев Николаевич — Биография. Цитаты из работ Гумилёва. Краткая библиография, Москва, (1990, с отд. дополнениями до 2002) (Russian); Di Cosmo, Nicola; Michael Loewe and Edward L. Shaughnessy (1999/2007). The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 BC.. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. 
[9] [2006 study observed genetic similarity among Mongolian samples from different periods and geographic areas including 2,300-year-old Xiongnu population of the Egyin Gol Valley. The Egyin Gol necropolis is located in the Egyin Gol Valley (northern Mongolia), near the Egyin Gol River, close to its confluence with the Selenge River of Mongolia. This results supports the hypothesis that the succession over time of different Mongolian tribes in the current territory of Mongolia resulted in cultural rather than genetic changes. A study based on mitochondrial DNA analysis of human remains interred in the Egyin Gol Valley of Mongolia concluded that the Mongol peoples originated from the same area and therefore are possibly related.] Amory S, Crubézy E, Keyser C, Alekseev AN, Ludes B (October 2006). "Early influence of the steppe tribes in the peopling of Siberia". Human Biology78 (5): 531–49. doi:10.1353/hub.2007.0001. PMID 17506285; Genome News Network 2003.
[10][In Han Dynasty (China), raids by nomadic Hunnu Empire (Mongolian tribes) from 177 BCE gravely threatened the Han dynasty’s northern borders in Great Wall. In 139 BCE the imperial envoy, Zhang Qian, set out to Hunnu (Centeral Asia) to seek out possible allies against the Hunnu Empire. His epic journey helped scout the way for Han expansion as far as Dunhuang, and the foundation of a number of new emperor- Shan Yu by 104 BCE. Zhang qian was held captive by the Hunnu for some years during his journey before he was able to make an escape. Under Han emperor Wu(141-87 BCE) the Han dynasty’s launched several offensives against the Hunnu Empire, particularly in 121 BCE and 119 BCE, after which the frontier was quiet for almost 20 years.] Dorling Kindersley, History Year by Year, The Ultimate visual guide to the events that shaped the world, Smithsonian Institute, London, 2011, p.67
[11]Гумилёв Л. Н, История народа Хунну, Москва, Институт Ди-дик, 1997.(Russian)
[12] S.S.M. De Groot. Chinesische Urkunden zur Geschichte Asiens. Teil I. "Die Hunnen der vorchristlichen Zeit". Berlin; Leipzig, 1921. S. 57; Pritsak 0. Stammensnamen und Titulaturen der Altaischen Volker, Ural-Altaischen Jahrbucher. Bd XXIV. Heft 1-2. Wiesbaden, 1952. S. 53.
[13]History of Mongolia,the Academy of Sciences of Mongolia. Ulaanbaatar,1981
[14] [Temujin was born into the Esuuhei in 1162 and is best known as Chinggis (Genghis) Khaan. His father was a chieftain of one of the numerous tribes ansd was killed by the Tatars when Temujin was just 9 years old. With the support of his father’s friends, Temujin established the Great Mongol State in 1189. By 1206 he had united 81 different Mongolian tribes and established the Great Mongolian Empire in 1206, when he was crowned as Chinggis Khaan. 2006 is the year of 800th anniversary of the establishment of Mongol Empire. Chinggis Khaan died in 1227. Subsequent Mongolian Khaans (Imperators and kings) were chosen from following generations of Chinggis Khaan’s children.] History of Mongolia, the Academy of Sciences of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar,1981.

[15]Valentin A. Riasanovsky, The  Great  Law of  Genghis  Khan: For more information on the law of Genghis Khan, see Fundamental Principles of Mongol law, Uralic and Altaic series, vol.43 (Bloomington: Indiana University Publications, 1965, p.33- 83; The Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 25, No. 3 (May, 1966), pp. 542-544

[16]Vladimortsov, Boris, the Life of Chingis Khan, Trans, Prince D.S.Mirky, and New York: B. Blom, 1930, p.74; Jackson, Peter, The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History. Cambridge, UK; New York, USA: Cambridge University Press, 2003

[17]Unentugs Shagdar, Law of War, The Rule, Principle: Military of the Mongol Empire, Dubai, 2012, p.12. Available at:

[18]Allsen, Thomas T, Culture and conquest in Mongol Eurasia, Cambridge University Press, 2004

[19]B.Shirnen, Migration and language of the Buryats, Ulaanbaatar, Ulan-Ude, 2005
[20][Signed on 25 May 1915, the Treaty of Kyakhta was a tri-party treaty between Russia, Mongolia, and China. Russia and China recognized only OuterMongolia.], Unentugs Shagdar, General Prospects of the Asia – Pasific Community and Mongolia’s Position, Ulaanbaatar, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Soros Foundation, 2002, p.5, Available at:; Batsaikhan.O, The Last King of Mongolia, Bogdo Jebtsundamba Khutuktu. Ulaanbaatar, Admon, 2008, p.290-293; 1915 оны Хиагтын 3 улсын гэрээ, Үндэсний Төв Архив, National Archive of Mongolia (Mongolian);  Коростовец И. Я, От Чингис-хана до Советской республики. Улан-Батор: Адмон, 2004. (Russian);     1915525蒙三方在恰克图共同签订中俄蒙协约.中俄蒙协约》,恰克图条约》(Кяхтинское соглашение蒙古Хиагтын гэрээ),是民国初年中国北洋政府同沙俄签订的有关外蒙古的条约外蒙古同,在王公族的带领下宣布立。
[21]Signed on 3 November 1912, the Mongolian-Russian agreement in Niyslel Huree; December 19, 1912, Mongolian-Tibetan agreement was signed in Niyslel Huree, National Archive of Mongolia.
[22]Signed at Peking on the 5th (18th) November 1913, Russo-Chinese Agreement, Unentugs Shagdar, The romantic story of the Mongolian Independence, Ulaanbaatar, 2002. Available at:

[23]Unentugs Shagdar, “The Treaty of Kyakhta, 1915”, General Prospects of the Asia – Pasific Community and Mongolia’s Position, Ulaanbaatar, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Soros Foundation, 2002, p.5, See: Supra note 44,

[24] [In 1921 Mongolia secured its independence and became the world's second communist country. For the next 68 years Mongolia remained closely aligned with the Soviet Union, and developed political and economic systems following Soviet models. However, with the coming of glasnost in the Soviet Union and the beginning of Soviet troop withdrawals from Mongolia in 1989, protests for greater democracy began in Ulaanbaatar. As in many East European countries, these protests led to the fall of the Communist government and fully democratic, multi-party elections were held in 1990. After the breakdown of com­munism in 1989, Mongolia saw its own Democratic Revolution in early 1990, which led to a multi-party system, a new constitution in 1992, and economic transition towards a market economy.]

No comments: