Friday, November 8, 2013

Treaty of Kyakhta 1915 - and Treaty of Nerchinsk 1689 -- A Treaty between Russia and China = Suppress Dzungar 1696

Treaty of Kyakhta 1915- A Treaty between Russia and China

The Treaty of Kyakhta (or Kiakhta) (1727) (Chinese: 恰克图条约)

Along with the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689), this regulated the relations between Imperial Russia and the Qing Empire of China until the mid nineteenth century. It was signed at the border city of Kyakhta, August 23, 1727.

Diplomatic and trade relations were established that lasted until the mid nineteenth century.
It established the northern border of Mongolia (what was then the Russo-Chinese border).
The caravan trade from Kyakhta opened up (Russian furs for Chinese tea).
Agreement with Russia helped China expand westward and annex Xinjiang.
By the 1640s Russian adventurers had taken control of the forested area north of Mongolia and Manchuria. From 1644 the Manchus made themselves masters of China (Qing Dynasty). In 1689 the Treaty of Nerchinsk established the northern border of Manchuria north of the present line. The Russians retained Trans-Baikalia between Lake Baikal and the Argun River north of Mongolia.
At the time of Nerchinsk what is now Mongolia had just been captured by the Oirat Zunghar Khanate. These people were gradually pushed back westward. This raised the question of the Russo-Manchu border in Mongolia and opened the possibility of trade from the Lake Baikal area to Peking. The Manchus wanted an agreement because they were worried about possible Russian support for the Oirats and did not want disobedient subjects fleeing to the Russians. Many of the Cossacks in Siberia were rather close to bandits and could cause trouble if not restrained by the Tsar. The Russians had neither a reason nor the means to push south and were more interested in profitable trade. The Russians had no hope of sending a serious army this far east and the Manchus had no interest in the frozen forests of Siberia.
From the 1710s the Kangxi Emperor began to put pressure on Saint Petersburg for an agreement, largely by interfering with the caravan trade. The Lev Izmailov mission in 1719/22 to Peking produced no results.
Just before his death, Peter the Great decided to deal with the border problem. On October 23, 1725 Sava Vladislavich, a Serb in the Russian service, left Saint Petersburg with 1,500 soldiers and 120 staff including map-makers and priests. Before reaching Peking in November 1726, he picked up Lorents Lange and Ivan Bucholz and sent out cartographers to survey the border. The negotiators on the Manchu side were Tulishen and Dominique Parrenin (??this sounds like a Russian misspelling of a French name). After six months a draft treaty was worked up, but it became clear that neither side had adequate maps. In May Vladslavich and Tulishen went back to Selenginsk near Lake Baikal to get the waiting maps. By August 31 a draft treaty was drawn up ('Treaty of Bura' after a nearby river). Work quickly began setting up border markers starting from Kyakhta on the Selenga River. The 'Abagaitu Letter' listed 63 markers from Kyakhta east to the Argun River. The 'Selenginsk Letter' listed 24 markers west from Kyakhta to the "Shabindobaga River on the northwest slopes of the Altay Mountains" (??this needs to be located). The 'Treaty of Bura' was sent to Peking to be combined with work already done there. The result was sent back to the frontier and the Treaty of Kyakhta was signed on 25 June, 1728 (old style). The treaty had three official versions, in Russian, in Latin and in Manchu. No official Chinese version of the treaty exists.
The Treaty had eleven articles, the core of which dealt with commercial relations and diplomatic immunities.
Articles I and XI spoke of eternal peace and cooperation between the two nations, and concerned itself with the language and organization of the rest of the document.
Article II dealt with the exchange of fugitives.
Article III, along with VII, delineated the new borders, leaving only territory along the Irtysh River unassigned. The fate of this land, according to the treaty, would be determined in the future by ambassadors or further correspondence between the two nations' capitals.
Article VI dealt with commercial relations; from this treaty and others, Russia gained far more favorable commercial arrangements with the Chinese than most European countries, who traveled by sea and traded at Canton.
Article V allowed for the establishment of a Russian religious institution in Beijing.
Article VI, along with IX, concerned itself with the forms and modes of diplomatic intercourse between the two nations, both of which had complex systems of bureaucracy and protocol.
Article VIII, along with X, discussed the methods and procedures for settling future disputes.
1768: On 18 October 1768 a Convention was signed modifying Article X of the original treaty making punishments more explicit. This was due to the Qing conquest of the Zunghar Khanate, causing rebels to cross the border and other problems which led the Chinese to curtain trade in 1762 and suspend it in 1765.
1915 On 25 May 1915, China, Russia and Outer Mongolia made a second treaty of Kyakhta. Basically: Russia and China recognize Outer Mongolia's autonomy, but Mongolia recognizes China's sovereignty and will make no treaties with foreign countries. This had the effect of reducing Outer Mongolia's autonomy within the new Republic of China, but it became moot after the October Revolution when Mongolia lost its protector.

Орос, Монгол, Хятад гурван улсын хиагтын гэрээ

Гурван этгээдийн хэлэлцээр Монгол Оросын хил дагуу орших Хиагт хот буюу 18-р зууны эхнээс Орос, Монгол, Хятадын худалдаа арилжааны үндсэн цэг төвлөрсөн хотод болсон. Орос Хятадын худалдааны ихэнх хувь Хиагтаар дайрч өнгөрдөг байсан.
Хятад улс нь уг хэлэлцээрт орсон гол нөхцөл нь:
1. Монгол улсын олноо өргөгдсөн оны цолыг хүчингүй болгох
2. Тусгаар тогтнолыг нь хүчингүй болгох
3. Хааны цолыг хэрэгсэхгүй болгохыг Монгол улсаар хүлээн зөвшөөрүүлэх явдал байсан.
Гурван улсын хэлэлцээр Монгол улсын худалдаа хил гаалийн тухай харилцан тохиролцсон юм. Мөн Орос, Хятад иргэдийн эрхийг Оросын Консул болон түүний томилсон хүмүүс Хятадын сайд ба түүний түшмэлүүд хамгаалж хариуцахаар болсон.

Хиагтын гэрээнд оролцсон Монгол улсын засгийн газар түүний бүрэн эрхт төлөөлөгчдийн тавьсан гол зорилго нь:
1. 1911 онд тунхагласан улсынхаа тусгаар тогтнолоо баталгаажуулах
2. Монгол Улсын засгийн газрыг дэмжиж нэгдэхээ илэрхийлсэн Өвөр Монгол болон бусад Монгол үндэстэнээ өөрсөддөө хамааруулах зорилго байсан.
Энэ зорилго хэрэгжсэн байдал нь:
1. Монгол Улс эзэн хаантай
2. Үндэсний засгийн газартай
3. Өөрийн асуудлаа дотооддоо шийдэх эрхтэй
4. Өөрийн цэрэгтэй
5. Нутаг дэвсгэртэй
6. Тусгайлан тогтоосон хил хязгаартай
7. Хятад иргэдийг олноор оруулахгүй байх
8. Бусад улсын цэргийг нутаг дэвсгэртээ байрлуулахгүй байх
9. Худалдааны талаар Олон Улсын Гэрээ байгуулах эрхтэй болсон
10. Дээрх эрхийг хэрэгжүүлэхэд Хаант Орос улс болон Хятад улс оролцохгүй байхаар тохиролцсон
11. Уг гэрээгээр Монголын улс төр хязгаарлагдмал шинжтэй болсон ч гэрээний эхэд "Улс" гэдэг үгийг оруулахаар болсон.

Гурван улсын гэрээнд Хятадын засгийн газар түүний бүрэн эрхийн төлөөлөгчдийн тавьсан зорилго нь:
1. Ар, Өвөр Монголыг өөртөө бүрэн хамааруулж Манж Чин улсыг залгамжлагч гэж өөрийгөө үзэж Монгол үндэстэний талаарх бүх эрхийг өвлөн авч хадгалдаг.
2. Үүний тулд Орос Хятадын тунхагыг Монгол улсаар хүлээн зөвшөөрүүлэх, МУ-ын тусгаар тогтнол оны цол хааны цолыг хэрэгсэхгүй болгох зорилго тавьсан.
Хятадын тавьсан зорилго хэрэгжсэн байдал нь:
1. Өвөр Монголыг өөртөө авч чадсан
2. Ар Монголын хувьд Орос болон Монголын хүчтэй ээсргүүцэл дээр тулгарч нэр төдий сюзернитет эрхтэй үлдсэн
3. Хэлэлцээрийн явцад Хятадын төлөөлөгчид Монголыг "Улс" гэж томъёолохыг эсэргүүцэж хэрэв ингэж бичвэл Хятад улсаас салсан болон хэмээн Монголыг тусгаар тогтнолоо устгаж Хятадын бүрэлдэхүүнд орохыг шаардсан ч бүтээгүй.

Гурван улсын гэрээнд оролцсон Оросын засгийн газар болон түүний бүрэн эрхт төлөөлөгчдийн тавьсан гол зорилго нь:
1. 1911 оны Монголын үндэсний хувьсгалд тусалснаараа олж авсан улс төр, эдийн засгийн байр сууриа баталгаажуулах.
2. Ар Монголыг өөрийн нөлөөний эрхшээлд голлосон улс болгохыг зорьсон.
Оросын талын тавьсан зорилго хэрэгжсэн байдал нь:
1. Хиагтын хэлэлцээрийн эхний үеэр Хаант Орос улс Монгол улстай мөнгө зээлдүүлэх, буу зэвсгийн, төмөр зам байгуулах, цахилгаан мэдээний тухай 4 зүйлийн гэрээ байгуулсан нь Монголд олж авсан улс төр, эдийн засгийн байр сууриа бататгасан явдал байсан.
2. Ар Монголд Хятадын Сюзернитет эрхийг ёс төдий тогтоож өөрийн холбоотон болох Англи, Франц улсуудын хилийн талаар байр суурьтай сөргөлдөхгүй байхыг хичээж байсан.
Хиагтын гэрээнд автономи буюу өөртөө эзэрхсэн хэмээх нэр томъёог хэрэглэсэн нь тухай үеийн ОУХ-нд бие даасан улсын утгаар хэрэглэж ирсэн жишиг. Гэрээний явцад болон түүний дараа ямар нэгэн маргаан гарвал тухайн үеийн дэлхийн нийтийн хэл болсон Франц хэлийг гэрээний үндсэн хэл болгохоор тохиролцсон юм. Учир нь: Аль нэг тал нь өөрийн хэлээр өөрийн улсын эрх ашгийг урьтал болгон хэлэлцээрийн агуулгыг гуйвуулахаас сэргийлж чадсан юм. Хиагтын хэлэлцээрт Монголын нутаг дэвсгэрт зааглан тогтоосон нь Хятадаас тусгай, ОУЭЗ-н субьект мөнийг зөвшөөрсний нотолгоо болсон. Ийнхүү 1915 оны 6-р сарын 7-ны өдөр Хиагтын гэрээ түүний үйл явц өндөрлөсөн.

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Treaty of Nerchinsk 1689 - The First Treaty between Russia and China

The Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) (Chinese: 尼布楚条约) was the first treaty between Russia and China. The Russians gave up the area north of the Amur River and east of the mouth of the Argun River but kept the area between the Argun River and Lake Baikal.

The agreement was signed in Nerchinsk on August 27, 1689. The signatories were Songgotu on behalf of the Kangxi Emperor and Fedor Golovin on behalf of the Russian tsars Peter I and Ivan V.

The authoritative version was in Latin, with translations into Russian and Manchu, but these versions differed considerably. There was no official Chinese text for another two centuries, but the border markers were inscribed in Chinese along with Manchu, Russian and Latin.
Later, in 1727, the Treaty of Kiakhta fixed what is now the border of Mongolia west of the Argun and opened up the caravan trade. In 1858 (Treaty of Aigun) Russia annexed the land north of the Amur and in 1860 (Treaty of Beijing) took the coast down to Vladivostok. The current border runs along the Argun, Amur and Ussuri Rivers.
From about 1640, Russians entered the Amur basin from the north, into land claimed by the Manchus who at this time were just beginning their conquest of China. By 1685 most of the Russians had been driven out of the area. For this, see Russian-Manchu border conflicts.
After their first victory at Albazin in 1685, the Manchus sent two letters to the Tsar (in Latin) suggesting peace and demanding that Russian freebooters leave the Amur. The Russian government, knowing that the Amur could not be defended and being more concerned with events in the west, sent Fyodor Golovin east as plenipotentiary. Golovin left Moscow in January 1686 with 500 streltsy and reached Selenginsk near Lake Baikal in October 1687, from whence he sent couriers ahead. It was agreed the meeting would be in Selenginsk in 1688. At this point the Oirats (western Mongols) under Galdan attacked the eastern Mongols in the area between Selenginsk and Peking and negotiations had to be delayed. To avoid the fighting Golovin moved east to Nerchinsk where it was agreed that talks would take place. The Manchus with 3,000 to 15,000 soldiers under Songgotu left Peking June 1689 and arrived in July, (March remarks that there were no Mandarins with them since the journey had to be made on horseback and few Chinese gentlemen had mastered this undignified skill). Talks went on from August 22 to September 6. The language used was Latin, the translators being, for the Russians, a Pole named Andrei Bielobocki and for the Chinese the Jesuits Jean-Francois Gerbillon and Thomas Pereira. To avoid problems of precedence, tents were erected side by side so that neither side would be seen as visiting the other.
The Chinese wanted to remove the Russians from the Amur but were worried about possible Russian support for the western Mongols. They also wanted a delineated frontier to keep nomads and outlaws from fleeing across the border. They were interested in the Amur since it was the northern border of the Manchu heartland. They could ignore the area west of the Argun since it was then controlled by the Oirats. The Russians knew that the Amur was indefensible and were more interested in establishing profitable trade. Golovin accepted the loss of the Amur in exchange for possession of Trans-Baikalia.
The agreed boundary was the Argun River north to its confluence with the Shilka River, up the Shilka to the 'Gorbitsa River', up the Gorbitsa to its headwaters, then along the east-west watershed through the Stanovoy Mountains and down the Uda River (Khabarovsk Krai) to the Sea of Okhotsk at its southwest corner.
The border west of the Argun was not defined (at the time, this area was controlled by the Oirats). The Gorbitsa is hard to find on modern maps. Google Earth shows a Gorbitsa River as a tributary of an unnamed river that flows south to join the Shilka about 35 km east of Nerchinsk. If this is the Gorbitsa, Russia would have had a long narrow beak between the Shilka and Argun. Neither side had very exact knowledge of the course of the Uda River.
The treaty had six paragraphs: 1 and 2: definition of the border, 3. Albazin to be abandoned and destroyed. 4. Refugees who arrived before the treaty to stay, those arriving after the treaty to be sent back. 5. Trade to be allowed with proper documents. 6. Boundary stones to be erected, and general exhortations to avoid conflict.

Suppress Dzungar

In the 1650s, The Qing Dynasty and the Russian Empire fought along the Sahaliyan ula (Amur, or Heilongjiang黑龙江) Valley region. The battle ended with a Qing victory. The Russians invaded the northern frontier again in 1680s. After series of battles and negotiations, the two empires signed the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689 giving China the Amur valley and fixing a border.

At this time the Khalkha Mongols preserved their independence and only paid tribute to the Manchu Empire. A conflict between the Houses of Jasaghtu Khan and Tosheetu Khan led another dispute between the Khalkha and the Dzungar Mongols over influence over Tibetan Buddhism. In 1688 Galdan, the Dzungar chief, invaded and occupied the Khalkha homeland. The Khalkha royal families and the first Jebtsundamba Khutughtu crossed the Gobi Desert, sought help from the Qing Dynasty and, as a result, submitted to the Qing. In 1690, the Dzungar and the Manchu Empire clashed at the battle of Ulaan Butun in Inner Mongolia, during which the Qing army was severely mauled by Galdan.
In 1696, the Kangxi Emperor himself as commander in chief led three armies with a total of 80,000 in the campaign against the Dzungars. The notable second-in-command general behind Kangxi was Fei Yang Gu(费扬古) who was personally recommended by Zhou Pei Gong(周培公). The Western section of the Qing army crushed Galdan's army at the Battle of Zuunmod and Galdan died in the next year.

The Treaty of Aigun was the Russian-Chinese treaty that established much of the modern border between the Russian Far East and the Northeastern China (Manchuria). Its provisions were confirmed by the Beijing Treaty of 1860. Basically, it reversed the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) by transferring the land between the Stanovoy Mountains and the Amur River from China (Qing Empire) to the Russian Empire.
The Russian representative Nikolay Muravyov and the Qing representative Yishan signed the treaty on May 28, 1858, in the town of Aigun.
Since the 1700s, Russia had desired to become a naval power in the Pacific. It did so by establishing naval outposts near the River Amur watershed, encouraging Russians to go there and settle, and slowly developing a strong military presence in the region. China never really governed the region effectively, and these Russian advances went unnoticed.
By the late 19th century, Russia was strong enough, and China weakened enough, for Russia to consider seriously the annexation of the Amur territories to the Russian crown. The Chinese estimates of the strength of the Russians, particularly with regard to their military, were grossly exaggerated. When official protests from Beijing went unheeded and Muravyov threatened China with war, the Qing Dynasty agreed to enter negotiations with Russia.
The resulting treaty established a border between the Russian and Chinese Empires along the Amur River, further south than the original border. Under the terms of this treaty:
1) Russia gained the left bank of the Amur River that had been assigned to China as a result of Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689. (Chinese and Manchu residents of the Sixty-Four Villages East of the Heilongjiang River would be allowed to remain, under the jurisdiction of Manchu government.) The Amur, Sungari, and Ussuri rivers were to be open exclusively to both Chinese and Russian ships. The territory bounded on the west by the Ussuri, on the north by the Amur, and on the east and south by the Sea of Japan was to be jointly administered by Russia and China -- a "condominium" arrangement similar to that which the British and Americans had agreed upon for the Oregon Territory in the Treaty of 1818. In total, China effectively lost more than one million square kilometers of land.
2) The inhabitants along the Amur, Sungari, and Ussuri rivers were to be allowed to trade with each other.
3) The Russians would retain Russian and Manchu copies of the text, and the Chinese would retain Manchu and Mongolian copies of the text.
4) All restrictions on trade to be lifted along the border.

Significantly, the Treaty of Aigun was never approved by the Xianfeng Emperor, and was largely superseded by the Treaty of Beijing in November 1860.

Treaty of the Bogue - An Agreement between the Qing Empire and the United Kingdom

The Treaty of the Bogue (simplified Chinese: 虎门条约) was an agreement between China and the United Kingdom, which was concluded in October 1843 in order to supplement the previous Treaty of Nanking. The treaty is mostly known for the fact that it granted extraterritoriality and most favored nation status to Britain.
In order to conclude the First Opium War, imperial commissioner Qiying and Henry Pottinger concluded the Treaty of Nanking aboard the British warship HMS Cornwallis in 1842 in Nanjing on the behalf of the British and the Qing Empires. The treaty became the first of a series of commercial treaties, often referred to as "Unequal Treaties", which China concluded with Western powers.
Already during the negotiations in Nanjing, China and Britain agreed that a supplementary treaty be concluded, and on 22 July 1843 the two parties promulgated the "General Regulations of Trade with Britain and China" in Guangzhou. These regulations were included in the "Treaty of the Bogue," which Qiying and Pottinger signed on 3 October 1843 on the Bogue outside Guangzhou.
The treaty laid down detailed regulations for Sino-British trade and specified the terms under which Britons could reside in the newly opened ports of Shanghai, Ningbo, Xiamen, Fuzhou and Guangzhou. While Britons were allowed to buy property in the treaty ports and reside there with their families, they were not allowed to travel to the interior of China or carry out trade there.
The treaty also granted extraterritorial privileges to British subjects and Most Favored Nation status to the United Kingdom, which meant that Britain would enjoy any privilege granted to other powers.
In China, the treaty is widely regarded as an imperialist treaty, which paved the way for the subjugation of China to Western imperialism. The treaty consolidated the "opening" of China to foreign trade in the wake of the First Opium War and allowed Britons to reside in parts of China, which had not been opened to foreigners before. In 1845, local Qing authorities and the British authorities promulgated the Shanghai Land regulations, which paved the way for the foundation of the International Settlement. Similar agreements were concluded in other treaty ports, which created a social divide between the Europeans and Chinese citizens in the cities.

Treaty of Nanjing - First of the Unequal Treaties

The Treaty of Nanking or Treaty of Nanjing, signed 29 August 1842, was the unequal treaty which marked the end of the First Opium War between the British and Qing Empires of 1839–42. The treaties forced China to lower its tariffs.
In the wake of China's military defeat, with British warships poised to attack the city, representatives from the British and Qing Empires negotiated aboard HMS Cornwallis anchored at Nanjing. On 29 August 1842, British representative Sir Henry Pottinger and Qing representatives, Qiying, Ilibu and Niujian, signed the Treaty of Nanjing. The treaty consisted of thirteen articles and was ratified by Queen Victoria and the Daoguang Emperor nine months later. As one historian notes, a "most ironic point was that opium, the immediate cause of the war, was not even mentioned.
Foreign trade
The fundamental purpose of the treaty was to change the framework of foreign trade which had been in force since 1760 (Canton System). The treaty abolished the monopoly of the Thirteen Factories on foreign trade (Article V) in Canton and instead five ports were opened for trade, Canton (Shameen Island until 1949), Amoy (Xiamen until 1930), Foochow (Fuzhou), Ningpo (Ningbo) and Shanghai (until 1949), where Britons were to be allowed to trade with anyone they wished. Britain also gained the right to send consuls to the treaty ports, which were given the right to communicate directly with local Chinese officials (Article II). The treaty stipulated that trade in the treaty ports should be subject to fixed tariffs, which were to be agreed upon between the British and the Qing governments (Article X).
Reparations and demobilization
The Qing government was obliged to pay the British government six million silver dollars for the opium that had been confiscated by Lin Zexu in 1839 (Article IV), 3 million dollars in compensation for debts that the Hong merchants in Canton owed British merchants (Article V), and a further 12 million dollars in compensation for the cost of the war (VI). The total sum of 21 million dollars was to be paid in installments over three years and the Qing government would be charged an annual interest rate of 5 per cent for the money that was not paid in a timely manner (Article VII).
The Qing government undertook to release all British prisoners of war (Article VIII) and to give a general amnesty to all Chinese subjects who had cooperated with the British during the war (Article IX).
The British on their part, undertook to withdraw all of their troops from Nanjing and the Grand Canal after the emperor had given his assent to the treaty and the first installment of money had been received (Article XII). British troops would remain in Gulangyu and Zhoushan until the Qing government had paid reparations in full (Article XII).
Cession of Hong Kong
The Qing government agreed make the island of Hong Kong a crown colony, ceding it to the British Queen "in perpetuity" in order to provide British traders with a harbour where they could unload their goods (Article III). Pottinger was later appointed the first governor of Hong Kong.
In 1860, the colony was extended with the Kowloon peninsula and in 1898, the Second Convention of Peking further expanded the colony with the 99 year lease of the New Territories. In 1984, the governments of the United Kingdom and the People's Republic of China (PRC) concluded the Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong, under which the sovereignty of the leased territories, together with Hong Kong Island and Kowloon (south of Boundary Street) ceded under the Convention of Peking (1860), was scheduled to transfer to the PRC on 1 July 1997.
Aftermath and legacy
Since the Treaty of Nanjing was brief and with only general stipulations, the British and Chinese representatives agreed that a supplementary treaty be concluded in order to work out more detailed regulations for relations. On 3 October 1843, the supplementary Treaty of the Bogue was concluded at Bocca Tigris outside Canton.
Nevertheless, the treaties of 1842-3 left several unsettled issues. In particular it did not resolve the status of the opium trade. Although the American treaty of 1844 explicitly banned Americans from selling opium, the trade continued as both the British and American merchants were only subject to the legal control of their consuls. The opium trade was later legalized in the Treaties of Tianjin, which China concluded after the Second Opium War.
The Nanking Treaty ended the old Canton System and created a new framework for China's foreign relations and overseas trade which would last for almost a hundred years. Most injurious were the fixed tariff, extraterritoriality, and the most favored nation provisions. These were conceded partly out of expediency and partly because the Qing officials did not yet know of international law or understand the long term consequences. The tariff fixed at 5% was higher than the existing tariff, the concept of extraterritoriality seemed to put the burden on foreigners to police themselves, and most favored nation treatment seemed to set the foreigners one against the others. Although China regained tariff autonomy in the 1920s, extraterritoriality was not formally abolished until 1943.

Treaty of Whampoa - A Commercial Treaty between France and the Qing Empire

The Treaty of Whampoa (simplified Chinese: 黄埔条约) was a commercial treaty between France and China, which was signed by Theodore de Lagrene and Qiying on October 24, 1844.
Based on the terms of the accord, China granted the same privileges to the Kingdom of France as it had done to Britain in the Treaty of Nanking and subsequent treaties. These privileges included the opening of five harbors to French merchants, extraterritorial privileges French citizens in China, a fixed tariff on Sino-French trade and the right of France to station consuls in China.
Toleration of Christianity
Although French prime minister Guizot only had given de Lagrene a mandate to negotiate a commercial treaty with France, de Lagrene decided that he wanted to enhance France's international prestige by securing a rescission of Yongzheng Emperor's prohibition of Christianity in China from 1724. By so doing, France could become the protectorate of Catholics in China, just like France played the same role in the Levant. After protracted negotiations with Qiting, most of which de Lagrene entrusted to his interpreter Joseph-Marie Callery, the Daoguang emperor issued an edict on February 1846, which legalized the practice of Christianity in China.

The Opium Wars and the Unequal Treaties in the Qing Dynasty

China as a country with a highly developed manufacturing industry had no need for imported cotton fabrics or similar items produced in the West. The British merchants - especially the East India Company - saw their chance in the import of opium. As the import of opium had been prohibited by the Chinese government already during the 18th century, the only way to make profit by selling Indian opium was the smuggling business.
During the 1830s, the British merchants systematically built up their opium import system and thereby met the huge demand of Chinese opium consumers and addicted people. Opium does not only mean a danger for health, but also has a deep impact on public moral. Moreover, the export of tea, silk and chinaware was not able to cover the costs for opium imports: the Chinese trade balance tended to become negative, the silver money left the country and depreciated the copper coins - a fatal development for the lower classes of population as well as for the rich merchants of the Yangtse area. The court in Beijing was divided between ministers proposing a forced barter (opium against Chinese products); allowance of opium import but imposing high taxes on the drug; or confrontation with the British merchants.
A representative of the last group was Lin Zexu(林则徐) who acted as commissioner in Guangzhou (Canton) in 1839, the main import harbour of the south. He confiscated opium cases and tried to banish British merchants. But under the protection of their government, the Britains under Captain Elliott attacked some small harbors, occupied islands and threatened the port of Tianjin with canon boats: the begin of the so-called Opium War (Yapian Zhanzheng 鸦片战争). A British fleet, commanded by Henry Pottinger, proceeded until Nanjing, when the Chinese government finally gave in and signed the Nanjing Treaty (Nanjing Tiaoyue 南京条约) in 1842, the first of a long line of shameful treaties for the Qing government, called "unequal treaties" (bu pingdeng tiaoyue 不平等条约). For twenty centuries, Chinese emperors had dealt in the same way with penetrating "barbarians": making concessions to them by granting them material presents like Chinese silk or sending them princesses. In 1842, nobody in China was aware that the danger coming from the West was much deeper than a few nomad barbarians attacking the Chinese frontiers.
In the Nanjing Treaty, the Qing government granted the British free (opium) trade in the harbors of Xiamen (Amoy), Shanghai, Ningbo, Fuzhou and Guangzhou, abolishing the monopol of the Chinese merchant guilds in these cities. British goods were imposed with a very low import tax, and British subjects were allowed to move freely inside China.
As a trade base (shangpu 商埠), the island of HongKong (Xianggang 香港) was handed over to Great Britain. The financial damages China had to pay for the war counted 21 million silver dollars. Great Britain was officially recognized by the Qing government as a foreign power with equal rights. In an additional treaty, the Humen Treaty (Humen Tiaoyue 虎门条约), Great Britain was allowed to establish concessional settlement territories (zujie 租界) where British subjects were exempt of Chinese jurisdiction.
But the most important item of this treaty was the Most Favorite Clausula (Zuihuiguo Daiyu Tiao 最惠国待遇), allowing Great Britain to obtain every contractual concession any other country should obtain. Following the British, France (Treaty of Whampoa or Huangpu 1844 黄埔), the USA (Treaty of Wangsha 望厦条约), and the minor European states forced treaties with the Chinese allowing them free trade inside a handfull of harbor cities. France obtained the permission to dispatch missionaries to China.
Still unsatisfied with the Najing Treaty, the British merchants claimed residential rights in China. When the Chinese police confiscated a Chinese ship under British flag named Arrow in 1856, and at the same time a French missionary was killed, British and French saw their chance to revise the Nanjing Treaty. Unifying their armies (Ying Fa Lianjun 英法联军), British and French occupied Guangzhou and forced the Qing government to sign the Tianjin Treaty (Tientsin Treaty; Tianjin Tiaoyue 天津条约) in 1858 after their canon boats had bombarded the Dagu Forts 大古 near Tianjin.
But the French army invaded Beijing and burned down and plundered the Qing emperors' summer residence in the Yuanmingyuan Garden 圆明园; the court had fled to Jehol (Rehe 热河) in Manchuria. These military actions are called the Second Opium War. Signed in 1860, the Beijing Treaty (Beijing Tiaoyue 北京条约) allowed British and French subjects free trade, travel and mission in all places of China, basing on a couple of open harbors.
Damages of 16 million silver bars (tael) were added by the cession of the Kowloon Peninsula (Jiulong Bandao 九龙半岛) opposite to Hong Kong to Great Britain. British and French were subject only to their own jurisdiction, and the two countries were diplomatically recognized by the Qing government and the first real foreign ministry (Zongli Yamen 总理衙门).
Until then, China had seen all other countries as subject to the Qing empire. Additionally, many foreign goods were freed from import tax. The maritime customs office was confiscated and run by the British official Robert Hart to ensure the payment of damages China had to hand over to the Western Nations. China had lost her sovereignity over the import taxes, a field that normally provided the state treasury with a large income.
Meanwhile, Russia also claimed rights on Chinese territory. The treaties of Nerchinsk (chin. Nibuchu 尼布楚) in 1689 and Kyakhta (chin. Qiaketu 恰克土 or 恰克图) in 1727 already had regulated frontier line and trade between Qing China and Russia. In 1858 Russia occupied the territory north of the River Amur and clamied this territory as Russian, ensured in the Aigun Treaty (Aihui Tiaoyue 瑷珲条约)


1915年6月7日,中、俄、蒙三方代表在恰克图签订了《中俄蒙协约》,又称《恰克图协约》。其中代表中国的是“大中华民国大总统特派都统衔”毕桂芳和“少卿衔上大夫驻墨西哥特命全权公使”陈箓,俄方代表是“大俄罗斯帝国大皇帝特派驻蒙古外交官兼总领事国务正参议官” 亚力山大·密勒尔,代表外蒙的是“外蒙古博克多哲布尊丹巴呼图克图汗特派司法副长额尔德尼卓囊贝子”希尔宁达木定和“财务长土谢图亲王” 察克都尔札布。

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